immunodeficiency disorder is more common to people than that of congenital disorders because this is what a person can n their later life. It is also important to note that anything that can weaken a person’s immune system may lead to what they call the Immunodeficiency disorder that is secondary. Before learning more about the disease, it is important to know what composes a person’s immune system. The immune system is a group or a host of the system that defends your body to protect it from diseases. It is composed of many different biological structures and processes and is spread throughout the body. Some of the organs that we will tackle in the immune system include the spleen, the tonsils, the bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Most of these are the organs that produce and let out lymphocytes or the white blood cells that are classed under the B cells and the T cells. Both these cells’ job is to fight the foreign particles or invaders that are called antigens. The B cells let off the antibodies that are specific to a person’s disease that their body is detecting, while the T cells are the ones that destroy the foreign and abnormal cells. Some examples of the antigens that a person’s B and T cells fight are bacteria, some viruses, some cancer cells, and parasites. The immunodeficiency disorder is the one disrupting your body’s capability to fight off the antigens.
What are the different types of immunodeficiency disorders?
The immunodeficiency disorder is occurring when your immune system does not properly function or work. If in any case that a person is born with a deficiency, or when the cause of your deficiency is genetic, it is names to be primary immunodeficiency. There are so many kinds of primary immunodeficiency disorder, more than a hundred of it. Some of the examples of the primary immunodeficiency disorder, including X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) or an inherited immunodeficiency disease that is caused by the mutation in the gene coding and almost exclusively occur in males; common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which is also known to be alymphocytosis or the “boy in a bubble” disease. As stated earlier, the secondary immunodeficiency disorders come from an outside force just like a very poisonous chemical or an infection invades or attacks a person’s body. Some of the examples of causes of secondary immunodeficiency disorders are severe burns, chemotherapy, radiation, diabetes, and malnutrition. While some of the disorders that include immunodeficiency disorders are AIDS, cancers in your immune system just like leukemia, nerve problem immune-complex diseases for example viral hepatitis, and multiple myeloma or cancer in the plasma cells that are the one producing the antibodies.
Causes of immunodeficiency disorders
What are the causes of disease immunodeficiency disorders? This varies depending on the kind of immunodeficiency disorder a person has. For the first kind, many primary immunodeficiency disorders are since birth or inherited – these are the kind of disorders that are passed down from either one or both of the parents. These are also the kind of diseases that encounter a problem in their genetic code, which mainly acts as the blueprint of the body for producing its cells (DNA) which then causes many of the defects in the immune system. There are around 300 types of primary immunodeficiency disorders and more and more are being identified by researchers every day. These diseases can be put into a group and classified into six, on the basis of the part of a person’s immune system that is affected. It can either be a B cell (antibody) insufficiency, T cell deficiency, the combination of B and T cell deficiencies, faulty phagocytes, complementary deficiencies and Unknown or idiopathic.
Diagnosis and Treatment of immunodeficiency disorder
To be able to identify if you have an immunodeficiency disorder, you will need to see your doctor for a check-up. During your check-up, it is imperative that your doctor knows everything necessary about you. If your physician thinks that you might be having an immunodeficiency disorder, you will be asked about your family’s medical history, to carry out a physical examination, perform a laboratory exam to determine the white blood cell count, determine the number of your T cell and determine the level of your immunoglobulin. You will also be asked to take vaccines that can test the response of your immune system – this is called the antibody test. Your physician will administer a vaccine to you and then will test the blood of its reaction to the administered vaccine after a few days or weeks. If a person does not have an immunodeficiency disorder, their immune system produce the antibodies that will fight the antigens contained in the administered vaccine. If a person’s blood tests do not show any antibodies, there is a big possibility that the person might have a disorder.
How are immunodeficiency disorders treated?
Every immunodeficiency disorder has different treatment conditions and is depending on a specific condition on the type of immunodeficiency disorder. Let’s take AIDS for example. The virus AIDS is the cause of several infections. The medication prescribed to you will be specific to each infection you are experiencing, and you might also be prescribed with an antiretroviral to be able to treat an HIV disease especially if it is appropriate. Other treatments for other immunodeficiency disorders commonly include some antibiotics and some immunoglobulin therapies. Some of the antiviral drugs like acyclovir, amantadine and even a drug called interferon were used to treat viral infections that are caused by the immunodeficiency disorder. If any case that a person’s bone marrow does not produce enough lymphocytes, their doctor or physician might have the possibility to ask and order for bone marrow or stem cell transplant.
How can immunodeficiency disorders be prevented?
The prevention of immunodeficiency disorders will depend on the kind of immunodeficiency disorder. For the case of the primary disorders, these can only be managed and treated, but these can not be prevented since these came from the genetic code of the person and inherited from the family members. For the secondary immunodeficiency disorders, these can be prevented in many ways. Taking AIDS as an example again, it is possible to prevent the person from acquiring AIDS by engaging only in protected sex and making sure that they do not have any unprotected intercourse with someone who is a carrier of HIV. Another thing to consider is sleep. Sleep is a very important part of an immune system that is in good shape. Mayo Clinic, a non-profit medical academic research center, adults are in need of an eight hour-sleep every night. It is also important to avoid having contact with the people that are sick, especially if you have an unhealthy immune system. If a person has a very communicable immunodeficiency disorder just like AIDS, it is imperative to practice safe sex and to not share body fluids with other people who are not infected.
What are the normal conditions under immunodeficiency disorders?
Every immunodeficiency disorder has its own unique symptoms, which can be frequent or can be chronic. Some of the symptoms may include pinkeyes, sinus infections, colds, diarrhea, pneumonia, and yeast infections. If these symptoms do not respond to the treatments given by the doctor or do not get better over a certain period of time, your doctor might give you the test for an immunodeficiency disorder.
What is the outlook for someone with an immunodeficiency disorder?
Almost all of the doctors actually agree that those people with immunodeficiency disorder can still lead a very fruitful and productive life. It is really important to note though that the early detection and treatment of the immunodeficiency disorder is very significant.
Risks of Having Immunodeficiency disorders
The reason why it is important to know your family’s medical history is that people who have a history of primary immunodeficiency disorder more likely has a chance to develop the same primary disorders. On the other hand, anything that causes your immune system to weaken can be the cause of a secondary immunodeficiency disorder. Take for example with AIDS, exposure to bodily fluids that are infected with HIV can be the cause. It can also be due to the removal of the spleen or many others. Though it is true that spleen removal might be necessary due to different conditions like cirrhosis of the liver, anemia, or the trauma of the spleen, it still causes your immune system to weaken. Aging might also be one of the reasons why your immune system weakens. As a person ages, some of the organs in the body that produces the white blood cells shrink which causes them to produce fewer. Not enough protein in a person’s diet can also one of the major causes of a weak immune system. Proteins are very important to keep a healthy immune system.
Table of Medications
- pegademase bovine