Owstoniines are less elongate, only 27-33 vertebrae and 19-26 dorsal-fin soft rays, with dorsal and anal fins not membraneously attached to the caudal fin (Ref.
Body scales cycloid.
About 1.2 m maximum length. following Ref.
Subfamilies Owstoniinae and Cepolinae. 7463). Cichlids are distributed in fresh- and brackish waters in Central and South America, Texas (1 species), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, Israel, Iran, Sri Lanka, and coastal southern India. Dolphinfishes inhabit the surface waters where they feed upon small fishes and other animals. Anal fin 21-41 soft rays. 76788). One of the most important families of tropical marine fishes; fished commercially and for recreation. Atlantic (tropical to temperate), Indian, and Pacific Oceans.
No teeth in palatines; vomerine teeth present or absent. Vertebrae 10-13 abdominal, 23-42 caudal. All the larger species are used as food fish, within a traditional artisanal and subsistence fishery, and all local markets in the lowland Amazon and Orinoco drainages offer Cichla, Astronotus, and other available species of sizes over 10 cm (Ferreira et al., 1998, for a market survey at Santarém).
Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). 75992). 58418. Pelvic fins lacking in Parona signata. Body scales cycloid. Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar. Head rough, often with spines.
Suggested new common name for this family from Ref.
Scales usually inconspicuous; cycloid, having radii in all fields. Much of Pellegrin’s efforts with the Neotropical taxa were improved upon by Regan’s series of generic revisions in the next two years (Regan, 1905-1906), which remained the platform for all Neotropical cichlid systematics until the 1980s.
The majority of the Neotropical cichlids feed on a variety of invertebrates and some plant matter, and specializations among those species remain little investigated.
Anterior dorsal fin with 4 or 5 spines; the second dorsal fin with 1 short spine and about 18 or 19 soft rays. Premaxilla and maxilla elongate and slender, firmly fused distally. Body compressed; usually elongated to anguilliform in Chaenopsis.
Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Because of the varied behavior and often attractive colors and moderate size, cichlids are commonly kept as ornamental fish.
To about 50 cm maximum length.
The anal fin with 1 spine and 15 soft rays.
Two anteriorly directed processes in swim bladder.
(2000: 146-229) summarize data for 38 cichlid species from French Guiana and adjacent countries; Greenfield & Thomerson (1997:184-206) cover 19 species from Belize
The presence of an expanded head of each fourth epibranchial bone (Stiassny, 1981);
Dichistiidae - (Galjoen fishes)
gymnoptera and Dipterygonotus balteatus; longitudinal axis from tip of snout to middle of caudal fin passing through centre of eye; mouth small and highly protrusible; small or minute conical teeth; axil of pectoral fins black (Ref. Moderately elongate and compressed fishes with small mouths and thick lips. Most taxa are in the interval 10-20 cm, however.
Gill membranes broadly connected to the isthmus, gill openings not continued far forward. Scales in lateral line often with three-lobed posterior extensions, except the most anterior scales.
Palatine and vomer toothless; caudal fin rounded; rounded lobes on anal and second dorsal fins giving fish the appearance of having three tails; dorsal fin with 12 spines and 15-16 soft rays; 24 vertebrae. Lateral line distinct, running high on body and nearly straight to end of dorsal fin, with 75-105 scales. The gas bladder adapts for higher pressures which it'll be exposed to in the ocean where it will dive much deeper in search of food and avoiding strong currents. Opercular bone very much splintered or fimbriated.
Dorsal and anal fin bases long. Anal spines at least 3. Axillary scale at base of pelvics.
94102). Species flocks are reported from Africa. Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. A cordlike ligament stretches from ceratohyal to dentary symphasis.
Marine, coastal and brackish water. Dolphinfishes inhabit the surface waters where they feed upon small fishes and other animals. Hypurals fused into one plate. Snout projecting forward and depressed. Spines in dorsal fin 14-23; soft rays 16-21. Distribution: marine habitats in southern Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America. Most species live in self-made burrows in muddy or fine-sand areas. About 1 m maximum length.
All these taxa are herein treated as valid for want of any better option. No spines in fins. Vertebrae usually 24. No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. Anal fin 5-7 soft rays.
Colorful cichlids are reared as aquarium fish. About 1.2 m maximum length. Distribution: Indian, Atlantic and Pacific. Scales usually inconspicuous; cycloid, having radii in all fields.
The following information (Ref. Dorsal fin with 1 spine and 8 to 10 soft rays; anal fin with 1 spine and 24 to 39 soft rays; pectoral fin with 26 to 30 rays (Ref.
Pelvic fin 1 spine, 5 soft rays.
The presence of an extensive cartilaginous cap on the anterior margin of each second epibranchial bone (Stiassny, 1981);
vomer head (Neocaristius); lateral line is not seen;
Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas. The single dorsal fin originates on the head and extends over nearly the full length of the body. The edges of the fins are often discolored (sometimes lighter, sometimes darker). It does not mean that the eggs will all become one sex but rather have a higher ratio in one of the two sexes present. Small pectoral fins with an oblique base. Swim bladder absent. = bristle, odont- (gr.)
All the larger species are used as food fish, within a traditional artisanal and subsistence fishery, and all local markets in the lowland Amazon and Orinoco drainages offer Cichla, Astronotus, and other available species of sizes over 10 cm (Ferreira et al., 1998, for a market survey at Santarém). (= former Coracinidae)
Dichistiidae - (Galjoen fishes)
Their body movement depends highly on undulation originating near the anterior axial end. Maximum length about 15 cm. 119093). Branchiostegal rays 5-7. Swim bladder usually absent in adults, except in Phenablennius, Omox, and most Nemophini. Channichthyidae - (Crocodile icefishes)
Only one species occurs in true marine waters Tilapia guineensis (Günther, 1862). 94100). Lower jaw fringed with a row of cirri. Eel aquaculture is a fast-growing industry.
Body generally compressed, although body shape extremely variable from very deep to fusiform. Spines in dorsal fin 10; soft rays usually 18-23. Species flocks are reported from Africa.
Detached finlets, as many as nine, sometimes found behind dorsal and anal fins. About 1 m maximum length. Pectoral fins large and rounded. Distribution: Mainly Indo-West Pacific.
Crenicichla species are known as jacundá in Brazil, añashúa in Peru, angoumot (French Guiana), mataguaro (Colombia, Venezuela), datra fisi (Surinam), cabeza amarga (Argentina and Uruguay).
Maxilla hidden from external view. Distribution: South Africa and Madagascar. 7463. Warm temperate to tropical (Ref. Lower jaw fringed with a row of cirri.
Smaller species, particularly in the genus Apistogramma, may be strongly sexually dimorphic.
Hide in holes at night (Ref. 7463). Pectoral fin rays 12-15. 7. Two separate dorsal fins, first short with 7-8 flexible spines, second long with 18 to 29 segmented rays; anal fin long with 1 spine, 17-29 segmented rays; 33-48 vertebrae (Ref.
Most of these are now recognized in well-diagnosed genera (Kullander, 1986, 1996, Kullander & Hartel, 1997), but several are kept with the generic denomination ‘Cichlasoma’ which is judged better than to include them in genera to which they certainly do not belong.
58418. Three spines in anal fin, soft rays usually 13 or 14. 101194). Most species live in self-made burrows in muddy or fine-sand areas. Benthic, making extensive systems of tunnels with numerous exits by burrowing in soft substrates.