Diseases or Conditions

A disease is an abnormal condition that affects a living organism. Diseases are generally medical conditions involving a pathological process that is associated with a specific set of symptoms. The localized disease affects a specific part of the body, the systemic disease affects the entire body, and disseminated disease spreads to other parts of the body.

A disease could be due to some external factors such as pathogens or by any internal dysfunction, such as the immune system producing a variety of different diseases, such as different forms of allergies, hypersensitivity, immunodeficiency, and autoimmune disorders.

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In humans, a disease more often refers to any condition that causes dysfunction, pain, social problems, distress, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems to people who come in contact with the person who has the disease. In a broader sense, it may include disabilities, injuries, syndromes, disorders, isolated symptoms, infections, atypical variations of function and structure, and deviant behaviors, which for other purposes may be considered distinguishable categories. Diseases affect people not only physically but also mentally, such as contracting and living with a disease that alters a person’s perspective for life.

Each disease process has an etiology or origin, but some may present different or confusing symptoms, which make it very difficult to diagnose or determine. The physical symptoms of a disease may come with emotional symptoms and some diseases that affect the chemical balance of the nervous system may manifest in physical symptoms.

There are various categories of diseases, including autoimmune, blood, bacteria, cancer, heart, digestive, nerve, thyroid, or sexually transmitted. Diseases may be categorized as either communicable or noncommunicable.

External sources that may cause disease include acquired bacteria or viruses. Some diseases are chronic, which means that they are continually present and may be present even without symptoms during a long duration.

Diseases are preventable or avoidable, especially when using different strategies such as proper nutrition, proper sanitation, vaccination, and frequent exercise. Treatments for a disease may range from the use of medication and medical devices to self-care to surgery. Some diseases are cured simply by time while others require a set of treatments that reverse the disease process or put an end to the root of the medical problem permanently. Some diseases may not be cured and only the symptoms of the disease are treated by using palliative care or pain management therapy.

Diseases may be classified as infectious diseases, hereditary diseases, deficiency diseases, and physiological diseases. They may also be classified as communicable or non-communicable diseases. Currently, coronary artery disease is the deadliest form of the disease in humans, followed by cerebrovascular disease and lower respiratory infections. Neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety and depression are the leading causes of diseases in developed countries.